Diglossia and Language Disorders

Language Disorders

Sociolinguistics is a dynamic subject that focuses on the interaction between language and society. Now if we classify these two terms as well- language and society, they themselves are dynamic and a combination of the two becomes way more complex. Therefore, sociolinguistics keeps on changing.

To study it requires long and tiring hours of research and analysis and therefore sociolinguists have come out with research paper writing to study this concept. Such dynamism of language also tolls the students and they have to go for assignment help in case of working on this concept. 

When in one language there exists two varieties at the same time, it is called Diglossia. In such coexistence of the two languages one form is the literary or the prestige dialect used in a more formal way while the other is the language spoken by the common people. For example, in most of the American cities, people speak both English and Spanish, switching from one to the other depending on the need of the moment. 

This term Diglossia was first used by Charles Ferguson in 1959 in his research paper writing, and literally means “speaking two languages”. He said that diglossia is a relatively stable language, wherein the other form adds itself, not disturbing the original form. Its high level is used in formal and official communication. And the lower level is used in informal communication or rather a friendly one. 

There are two types of diglossia: 

  1. Bilingual Diglossia is the type of diglossia wherein one language variety is used for speaking and other is used for writing. 
  2. When people are bidialectal, such people can use two dialects of one language based on the environment and the surroundings they are in. 

There is a difference between diglossia and diction. Whereas diction is just using texting language or slangs while speaking, diglossia has a proper definition, wherein its high level cannot be used for ordinary conversations.  

Diglossia has two varieties, the low (L) and high (H). both these varieties have major differences in their vocabulary. ‘H’ includes in its total lexicon, technical terms and learned expressions while ‘L’ includes in its total lexicon, popular expressions and the names of very homely objects or rather the objects of localized distribution.  There is a difference in the phonology of the two varieties as well. The phonology of the low (L) variety is the basic system and the phonology of the high (H) variety is either a subsystem or a para-system.

The characteristics of diglossia are: 

  • It can be used in formal as well as informal communication.
  • It can be acquired as well as learnt.
  • The standard variety of diglossia is the one that is accepted by people. The high variety has a proper structure and grammar while the low variety does not have the same.
  • As mentioned, the grammar of the high variety is a complex one as compared to the low one.
  • Also the phonology of the high variety is a complex one as compared to the low variety.

This is all you need to know about diglossia. Now let us understand what are the several language disorders. These disorders can be said to be communication disorders as well. They impact the way people use and then process the language they see or listen to. There are three major types of language disorders:

  • Expressive Language Disorder: As the name suggests, this type of disorder occurs when people have trouble expressing themselves to others. Such people are not able to frame sentences and communicate to others what they actually want to. They face problems putting words together so that their sentences can make sense. The signs of this disorder may appear at an early age in a child. Such kids talk less and often respond late than normal.
  • Receptive Language Disorder: This disorder means that people have difficulty figuring out what the others want to say. The words they receive are different from the words spoken and as a result they respond in a way that does not make sense. This disrupts the communication process. The signs of this disorder appear late and in such a case kids may not be able to obey the orders of others and in turn follow them. 
  • Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder: Some people face problems with both the above mentioned disorders, that is, they face problems communicating their words to others as well as understanding the words of others. 

These disorders may be from the time a child starts speaking and in the process they may develop as the child grows or they may be caused due to some illness or injury to the brain. But this does not mean that people with these disorders are less smart or less intelligent, rather they just face issues in communicating. 

Whereas sociologists study these disorders, speech-language pathologists do the evaluations required for its detection and diagnosis. It is important to differentiate these disorders from other disorders thus requiring thorough evaluation.

These evaluations are also done in schools when teachers observe these disorders in students. It is important to diagnose these disorders at the right time so that timely attention can be provided to the child. The earlier the diagnosis is done, the better it is for the child. 

Therefore these were the two different concepts related to language- diglossia and language disorders, the sociolinguists take the job of studying these concepts and the students learning and pursuing sociolinguistics must understand them so that they can get assignment help.

It is to be kept in mind that such a complex concept requires extensive patience while it is being studied since several researches are conducted and case studies are written to achieve the desired purpose. 

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